Graham Smith

Graham Murray Smith

Postal address:
School of Physics & Astronomy
Physical Science Building
North Haugh
St Andrews
United Kingdom

E-mail: gms@st-andrews.ac.uk

Web address: http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/physics/PHP_Global/Staff_Info.php?id=49

Direct phone: +44 (0)1334 462669

Research overview

Characterising charge carriers and traps in organic semiconductors using ESR. (Electron Spin Resonance)

High Magnetic Field Electron Spin Resonance.
This is an enabling technique in the study of paramagnetic systems (transition metal ions, free radicals, defects) in materials science and structural biology offering higher resolution, higher sensitivity and higher energy quanta. At St.Andrews we have used the expertise within the millimetre wave and magnetic resonance groups to construct a highly sensitive quasi-optical spectrometer that works from 80 to 300GHz in magnetic fields up to 12T at cryogenic temperatures. This spectrometer has state of the art sensitivity and is now a UK EPSRC facility and part of a European network on High Field ESR Instrumentation and research. The spectrometer has also been commercialised and several versions are now being used at leading laboratories around the world

High Field Ferromagnetic Resonance.
This is the study of ferromagnetic resonance in very high magnetic fields and uses the same type of spectrometer as for high field ESR measurements. Multi-frequency measurements in high fields allow anisotropy fields and damping terms to be calculated which are important parameters in the characterisation of magnetic storage media. The extra sensitivity available with the high field spectrometer has allowed very thin films to be characterised under conditions of full saturation and is very much an enabling technique

Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM).
This is a new technique that combines the spatial resolution of scanning probe microscopy with the chemical specifity associated with electron spin resonance. The magnetic resonance group is currently constructing a probe that works in high magnetic fields, low temperatures and in vacuum and should have a spatial resolution of around 10nm. Initial experiments have been very promising and point to the to the possibility of single spin sensitivity. If this can be achieved there are major applications in surface chemistry, ferromagnetic systems, semiconductor characterisation and structural biology.

For further information, see the High Field ESR web-site.

Recent Publications

The use of composite pulses for improving DEER signal at 94 GHz
Motion, C. L., Cassidy, S. L., Cruickshank, P. A. S., Hunter, R. I., Bolton, D. R., El Mkami, H., Van Doorslaer, S., Lovett, J. E. & Smith, G. M. May 2017 In : Journal of Magnetic Resonance. 278, p. 122-133 12 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

An output coupler for a W-band high power wideband gyro-amplifier
McElhinney, P., Donaldson, C., McKay, J. E., Zhang, L., Robertson, D. A., Hunter, R. I., Smith, G. M., He, W. & Cross, A. 16 Feb 2017 In : IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. 4 p., 7857760
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

High Gaussicity feedhorns for sub-/ millimeter wave applications
Robertson, D. A., McKay, J. E., Hunter, R. I., Speirs, P. J. & Smith, G. M. 28 Nov 2016 2016 41st International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz). IEEE, 2 p. 7758492
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Compact corrugated feedhorns with high Gaussian coupling efficiency and -60 dB sidelobes
McKay, J. E., Robertson, D. A., Speirs, P. J., Hunter, R. I., Wylde, R. J. & Smith, G. M. Jun 2016 In : IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation. 64, 6, p. 2518-2522
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

DEER sensitivity between iron centers and nitroxides in heme-containing proteins improves dramatically using broadband, high-field EPR
Motion, C. L., Lovett, J. E., Bell, S., Cassidy, S. L., Cruickshank, P. A. S., Bolton, D. R., Hunter, R. I., El Mkami, H., Van Doorslaer, S. & Smith, G. M. Apr 2016 In : Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. 7, 8, p. 1411-1415
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Instrumentation for high sensitivity, high power, millimetre wave, electron paramagnetic resonance
Smith, G. M., Robertson, D. A., Bolton, D. R., Cruickshank, P. A. S., Motion, C., McKay, J., El Mkami, H., Wylde, R. & Hunter, R. I. 31 Mar 2016 IET Colloquium on Millimetre-Wave and Terahertz Engineering & Technology 2016. 1 ed. London: Institution of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 2016, 5 p.
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

The use of the Rx spin label in orientation measurement on proteins, by EPR
Stevens, M. A., McKay, J. E., Robinson, J. L. S., El Mkami, H., Smith, G. M. & Norman, D. G. 28 Feb 2016 In : Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 18, 8, p. 5799-5806
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Towards increased concentration sensitivity for continuous wave EPR investigations of spin-labeled biological macromolecules at high fields
Song, L., Liu, Z., Kaur, P., Esquiaqui, J. M., Hunter, R. I., Hill, S., Smith, G. M. & Fanucci, G. E. 15 Feb 2016 In : Journal of Magnetic Resonance. In Press
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Geometric model-based fitting algorithm for orientation-selective PELDOR data
Abdullin, D., Hagelueken, G., Hunter, R. I., Smith, G. M. & Schiemann, O. 17 Sep 2014 In : Molecular Physics. 113, 6, p. 544-560
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

The Photo-Injected Fresnel Zone Plate Antenna: Optoelectronic Beam Steering at mm-Wave Frequencies
Gallacher, T. F., Robertson, D. A. & Smith, G. M. Apr 2013 In : IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation. 61, 4, p. 1688-1696 9 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Off-axis measurements on a mm-wave optically controlled lens antenna
Gallacher, T. F., Søndenå, R., Robertson, D. A. & Smith, G. M. 2013 In : IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters. 12, p. 1520-1522 3 p., 2288605
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dynamic beam steering at submm-and mm- Wave frequencies using an optically controlled lens antenna
Gallacher, T. F., Sndenå, R., Robertson, D. A. & Smith, G. M. 2013 Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Vol. 8715, 87150O
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Compact wideband corrugated feedhorns with ultra-low side lobes for very high performance antennas and quasi-optical systems
McKay, J. E., Robertson, D. A., Cruickshank, P. A. S., Bolton, D. R., Hunter, R. I., Wylde, R. & Smith, G. M. 2013 In : IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation. 99, 1 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Optoelectronic imaging using a millimeter-wave, optically controlled, photo-injected Fresnel-zone plate antenna
Gallacher, T., Robertson, D. A. & Smith, G. M. 7 Nov 2012 In : Optical Engineering. 51, 11, 119003
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sub-mm wave adaptive beam forming using a photo-injected semiconductor substrate
Gallacher, T., Sondena, R., Robertson, D. A. & Smith, G. M. 28 Oct 2012
Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

Optoelectronic modulation of mm-wave beams using a a semiconductor substrate
Gallacher, T. F., Sondena, R., Robertson, D. A. & Smith, G. M. Jul 2012 In : IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques. p. 2301 - 2309 10 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

W-band PELDOR with 1 kW microwave power: molecular geometry, flexibility and exchange coupling
Reginsson, G. W., Hunter, R. I., Cruickshank, P. A. S., Bolton, D. R., Sigurdsson, S. T., Smith, G. M. & Schiemann, O. Mar 2012 In : Journal of Magnetic Resonance. 216, p. 175-182 8 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

A spectrometer designed for 6.7 and 14.1 T DNP-enhanced solid-state MAS NMR using quasi-optical microwave transmission
Pike, K. J., Kemp, T. F., Takahashi, H., Day, R., Howes, A. P., Kryukov, E. V., MacDonald, J. F., Collis, A. E. C., Bolton, D. R., Wylde, R. J., Orwick, M., Kosuga, K., Clark, A. J., Idehara, T., Watts, A., Smith, G. M., Newton, M. E., Dupree, R. & Smith, M. E. Feb 2012 In : Journal of Magnetic Resonance. 215, p. 1-9 9 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sub-mm wave adaptive beam forming using a photo-injected semiconductor substrate
Gallacher, T. F., Sondena, R., Robertson, D. A. & Smith, G. M. 2012 European Microwave Week 2012: "Space for Microwaves", EuMW 2012, Conference Proceedings - 7th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference, EuMIC 2012. p. 223-226 4 p. 6483776
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

340 GHz 3D radar imaging test bed with 10 Hz frame rate
Robertson, D. A., Marsh, P. N., Bolton, D. R., Middleton, R. J. C., Hunter, R. I., Speirs, P. J., Macfarlane, D. G., Cassidy, S. L. & Smith, G. M. 2012 Proceedings of SPIE: Passive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV. Wikner, D. A. & Luukanen, A. R. (eds.). Bellingham: SPIE, Vol. 8362, p. - 11 p.
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Millimeter-wave beam forming and dynamic steering using an optically controlled photo-injected Fresnel zone plate antenna at 94 GHz
Gallacher, T. F., Robertson, D. A. & Smith, G. M. 2012 PASSIVE AND ACTIVE MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING XV. Wikner, D. A. & Luukanen, A. R. (eds.). BELLINGHAM: SPIE, p. - 9 p.
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Waveguide Characterization of Various Solid Absorbing Materials at W-band
Hunter, R. I., Robertson, D. A. & Smith, G. M. 9 Jun 2011 In : IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters. 21, 7, p. 389-391 3 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

The heme pocket of the globin domain of the globin-coupled sensor of Geobacter sulfurreducens - An EPR study
Desmet, F., Thijs, L., El Mkami, H., Dewilde, S., Moens, L., Smith, G. M. & Van Doorslaer, S. Oct 2010 In : Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 104, 10, p. 1022-1028 7 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

ESEEM and multi-frequency EPR study on Mn2+ luminescence centres in leucophanite
El Mkami, H., Friis, H., Finch, A. A. & Smith, G. M. Sep 2010 In : Physics and Chemistry of Minerals. 37, 8, p. 519-528 10 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

High power pulsed dynamic nuclear polarisation at 94 GHz
Hunter, R. I., Cruickshank, P. A. S., Bolton, D. R., Riedi, P. C. & Smith, G. M. 2010 In : Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 12, 22, p. 5752-5756 5 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

A dedicated spectrometer for dissolution DNP NMR spectroscopy
Leggett, J., Hunter, R., Granwehr, J., Panek, R., Perez-Linde, A. J., Horsewill, A. J., McMaster, J., Smith, G. M. & Koeckenberger, W. 2010 In : Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 12, 22, p. 5883-5892 10 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

A kilowatt pulsed 94 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer with high concentration sensitivity, high instantaneous bandwidth, and low dead time
Cruickshank, P. A. S., Bolton, D. R., Robertson, D. A., Hunter, R. I., Wylde, R. J. & Smith, G. M. Oct 2009 In : Review of Scientific Instruments. 80, 10, p. - 15 p., 103102
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Magnetic and high-frequency EPR studies of an octahedral Fe(III) compound with unusual zero-field splitting parameters
Solano-Peralta, A., Saucedo-Vazquez, J. P., Escudero, R., Hoepfl, H., Smith, G. M., Sosa-Torres, M. E. & El Mkami, H. 2009 In : Dalton Transactions. 9, p. 1668-1674 7 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

EPR Spectroscopy of a Family of (Cr7MnII)-Mn-III (M = Cd, Zn, Mn, Ni) "Wheels": Studies of Isostructural Compounds with Different Spin Ground States
Piligkos, S., Weihe, H., Bill, E., Neese, F., El Mkami, H., Smith, G. M., Collison, D., Rajaraman, G., Timco, G. A., Winpenny, R. E. P. & McInnes, E. J. L. 2009 In : Chemistry - A European Journal. 15, 13, p. 3152-3167 16 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Compact, High Power EIK sources used for ESR and NMR
Steer, B., Hyttinen, M., Roitman, A., Horoyski, P., Smith, G. M., Bolton, D. R., Cruickshank, P. A. S. & Robertson, D. A. 2008 2008 33RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFRARED, MILLIMETER AND TERAHERTZ WAVES, VOLS 1 AND 2. IEEE, p. 125-126 2 p.
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Magnetic and optical properties of single crystals of transition metal doped ZnO
Kane, M. H., Fenwick, W. E., Strassburg, M., Nemeth, B., Varatharajan, R., Song, Q., Keeble, D. J., Smith, G. M., Zhang, Z. J., Nause, J., Summers, C. J., Ferguson, I. T. & El Mkami, H. May 2007 In : Physica Status Solidi. B. 244, p. 1462-1467 6 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Design of high-performance millimeter wave and sub-millimeter wave quasi-optical isolators and circulators
Hunter, R. I., Robertson, D. A., Goy, P. & Smith, G. M. May 2007 In : IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques. 55, 5, p. 890-898 9 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sub-nanosecond coherent pulse generation at millimetre-wave frequencies
Bolton, D. R., Cruickshank, P. A. S., Robertson, D. A. & Smith, G. M. 15 Mar 2007 In : Electronics Letters. 43, 6, p. 43-44
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Force detected electron spin resonance at 94 GHz
Cruickshank, P. A. S. & Smith, G. M. Jan 2007 In : Review of Scientific Instruments. 78, 1, p. 015101 7 p.
Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Reducing standing waves in quasi-optical systems by optimal feedhorn design
Cruickshank, P. A. S., Bolton, D. R., Robertson, D. A., Wylde, R. J. & Smith, G. M. 2007 2007 JOINT 32ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFRARED AND MILLIMETER WAVES AND 15TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TERAHERTZ ELECTRONICS, VOLS 1 AND 2. NEW YORK: IEEE, p. 922-923 2 p.
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution